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Water Softening Process Flow Diagram

Care & Maintenance Tips For Water Softeners

Water softening Process

The average water softener lasts for 10-15 years. However, with proper maintenance and care, there are some ways to extend the life of a water softener well beyond this normal life span.

One of the most important and basic things to do is check the salt levels every 4-6 weeks. If the salt level of a water softener drops, then hard water will begin to return to the homes water system.

While checking the salt levels, also make sure to check on the condition of the brine tank as salt bridges may have formed over time. These bridges can prevent the resin beads from softening the water properly and must be cleared to ensure the proper functionality of the water softener.

Using the correct salt in for the water softener type is key to maintaining its functionality. Cubes or crystal salt is recommended for most available models but be sure to read the owners manual to make sure.

Distillation And Rain Water

Since Ca2+ and Mg2+ exist as nonvolatile salts, they can be removed by distilling the water. Distillation is too expensive in most cases. Rainwater is soft because it is naturally distilled during the water cycle of evaporation, condensation and precipitation.

Reverse osmosis uses an applied pressure gradient across a semipermeable membrane to overcome osmotic pressure and remove water molecules from the solution with hardness ions. The membrane has pores large enough to admit water molecules for passage hardness ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ will not fit through the pores. The resulting soft water supply is free of hardness ions without any other ions being added. Membranes are a type of water filter requiring regular cleaning or replacement maintenance.

Distillation and reverse osmosis are the most widely used two non-chemical methods of water softening.

Does The Average Water Softener Reduce Iron

Yes. Water softeners are capable of attracting and holding onto positively charged ions, and many systems can reduce ferrous iron in water, which is also found in ionic form.

Iron is known to cause staining on plumbing appliances, and can affect water taste and flavor in some forms.

A water softener uses the ion exchange process to exchange iron ions with sodium ions exactly how it exchanges calcium and magnesium with sodium.

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So How Does A Water Softener Work

The softening process begins when water enters the system from the main water supply line.

Water flows into the mineral or resin tank, containing a bed of resin. The resin beads in the tank are negatively charged, and attract positively charged sodium ions.

The calcium and magnesium mineral ions in the water are positively charged. The opposite charge of the resin attracts the calcium and magnesium ions and traps them.

When this happens, the resin beads release equal amounts of sodium ions to balance out waters charge, replacing the hardness minerals with sodium ions.

Bottle Blowing Machine Water Chiller

How Does a Water Softener Work?


Blow mold water chiller is used in blow molding machines, hollow moulding machines, injection blow molding machines, and plastic processing machinery mould cooling.

It can effectively improve the surface finish of plastic products and reduce the surface marks and internal stress of plastic products.

The product does not shrink or deform, reduces defective products.

Suitable for demoulding plastic products accelerates product shaping. Shortens the injection moulding cycle and significantly improves the production efficiency of the bottle blowing machine.


The protection system of the blow molding machine water chiller includes:

  • Compressor delay start protector,

Ensure the regular operation of the unit.

The features of water-cooled water chillers are

Ergonomic panel, fully automated control.

Equipped with a precision electric temperature controller, which can run smoothly for a long time

The use of high-efficiency heat transfer heat exchangers has a low cooling loss, easy to return oil, and the heat transfer tube will not freeze and crack

imported high-performance compressors, high EER value, low noise, and stable operation.

The feature of air-cooled chillers are:

No need to install a cooling tower, easy to install.

Easy to move, suitable for occasions where there is a lack of water source without water tower installation

Low noise fan motor, excellent cooling and condensation effect.

Stable throttling structure, excellent anti-rust treatment

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Check For Hard Water Signs:

  • Has your water gone back to leaving water spots on dishes and in the bathrooms?
  • Has your laundry gone back to being a little stiffer?
  • Have you been noticing dry skin after showering again?
  • Have faucets started to have mineral deposits again?

Running a Soap Test: Checking for suds from soap is something you could do at home very easily without the need to go to the store for a hard water testing kit and be a guide for if your water softener is working desired just as easily.

  • Fill a water bottle to almost full of tap water from your faucet
  • Add 10 drops of liquid soap
  • Shake the bottle
  • Check for suds. If suds do not appear when you have a water softener with around 10 drops of liquid soap, you may need to get a test kit to see how hard your water is.

    Metered Vs Timed Water Softener

    A metered water softener regenerates based on the volume of water that flows through the system .

    A timed water softener regenerates after a certain amount of time has passed .

    Metered water softeners offer the most efficient way to produce softened water. These systems only regenerate when they need to, while time-based regeneration often causes a system to regenerate when there is still sodium left in the resin tank.

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    Process Vessels And Equipment

    One of the initial steps to creating a process flow diagram is to add all of the equipment that is in the plant. Not only is the major equipment, such as distillation columns, reactors, and tanks, necessary to be shown in a PFD, so is the equipment such as the heat exchangers, the pumps, reactors, mixers, etc). The following figures will display the most common symbols found in process flow diagrams.

    Air Storage Tank Of Bottle Blow Molding Machine



    Air compressor storage tank, also known as a compressed air storage tank.

    It is a pressure vessel specially used to store compressed air.

    The function is used for air storage and buffering.

    To avoid the frequent start of air compressors and allow compressed air to settle in the air storage tank.

    Which is more conducive to water removal and pollution removal.

    It is mainly used in conjunction with air compressors, refrigerated dryers, filters and other equipment to form the power source for the industrial production-compressed air station.


    1. The amount of stored gas, on the one hand, solves the contradiction in the amount of gas that may occur in the system in a short time.

    On the other hand, it can be used temporarily when the air compressor fails or other emergencies

    2. Eliminate or weaken the pulsation of the output airflow of the piston air compressor.

    Stabilize the air source pressure to ensure continuous and stable output airflow

    3. Provide a more extensive system capacity.

    Extend the start-stop or load-unload cycle period of the air compressor.

    Reduce the switching frequency of electrical equipment and valves.

    4. Further cooling the air, separating and removing impurities such as moisture and oil from the compressed air.

    Reduce the workload of other processing equipment downstream of the pipe network.

    Make all kinds of gas equipment obtain the required high-quality gas source.

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    What Percentage Of Salt Is Used For Water Softening

    It’s not difficult to keep a Water Softener in good working order. You’ll be in good shape if you check the salt levels once or twice a month.

    If you don’t see water levels in your brine tank, the salt should be three to four inches above the water level. If you don’t see water levels, the salt should be over halfway filled. To keep your salt at an adequate level, you’ll probably need to add one whole 10kg bag of salt to your water softener once a month .

    Cleaning The Water Softener

    Flushing the resin bed with a water softener cleaner can help to remove iron and other heavy metals from the beads, allowing them to regenerate with salt properly.

    To clean a water softener, begin by dumping all water and salt out of the tank and disposing of it. To do this, dig a hole in the yard away from any plants, line the hole with sand and gravel, and discard the excess brine. Then remove the brine grid from the base of the tank and set it aside. Next, use warm, soapy water and a long-handled brush to scrub the tanks interior, and then rinse with plain water. Once rinsed, use a mixture of ¼ cup household bleach and 2 to 3 gallons of water to fill the tank. This mixture should sit for at least 15 minutes to kill any microorganisms. Rinse the reservoir once more, then replace the brine grid, refill with water, and replenish it with salt. Keep your water softener maintained to improve the water quality in the home and prevent any drops in water pressure due to mineral buildup.

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    Selecting A Water Softener

    If after weighing the advantages and disadvantages of water softening, you decide to soften your water, the next question you must consider is “How much?” Have the water tested and determine its classification from Table 1. Although many water softening companies offer free hardness testing, its best to have a third party evaluation. An independent lab test is not expensive and will protect you from being oversold.

    Next, recognize that unless your water is extremely hard, all the incoming water does not need to be softened. Showers, sinks, and laundry hookups probably should be softened toilets, outside spigots, and basement sinks can be bypassed. In some cases, you may desire to soften the hot water only. Measure the water usage at the designated hookups for each person in the household or use the following table as a guide.

    Table 2. Guidelines for estimating water use.

    Clothes washing 20-33 gal/use

    You can estimate the size of the softener you will need and the regeneration cycles using the following calculation as an example:

    What Are The Parts Of A Water Softener

    How Does a Water Softener Work?

    Salt-based water softeners are the most popular systems for softening water, using the ion exchange process to swap calcium and mahynesium minerals for sodium ions. Theyre made up of three main components:

    • A control valve

    The mineral tank is where the water softening takes place. This tank is filled with tiny resin beads. When water flows through the resin, the hard water minerals are replaced with sodium ions. The softened water then exits the tank and flows into your homes plumbing system, through your water heater, appliances, and fixtures.

    The brine tank holds the sodium, or salt, ready for use. The salt mixes with the water at the bottom of the tank to form a brine solution. When the water softener regenerates, it draws the brine solution from the brine tank into the resin tank. The brine solution washes through the resin beads, replenishing them with sodium. This process repeats itself every time the water softener system regenerates. Its important to top up the brine tank with salt when the salt levels fall low.

    Thecontrol valve controls how much water flows out of the resin tank and into your home. The valve is metered, enabling it to track the volume of water entering and flowing through the mineral tank. In a demand-initiated water softener, the control valve will schedule the softener to perform a regeneration cycle once a certain volume of water has passed into the resin tank, ensuring that the resin beads are replenished with sodium ions on time.

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    What Does A Water Softener Do

    You now know about the different parts a water softener contains. But how exactly do they work together so that soft water comes out of the system in the end?

    It all starts with hard water being distributed to your home. Its hard because it contains so called hardness minerals. These are primarily calcium and magnesium ions, and to some extent iron and manganese among others.

    The hard water comes in from the main supply line, passes the and enters the softeners head valve. From there it is directed into the resin tank all the way down to the distribution tube.

    On its way to the tube, the hard water gets in contact with the resin beads that are supersaturated with sodium ions or in rare cases potassium ions . These small beads are responsible for removing the hardness minerals from the water by a process called ion exchange cation exchange to be more precise.

    On a side note: Potassium chloride can be used as a regenerant instead of sodium chloride if you are on a salt restricted diet. It also has the benefit that it is easier to manage for sewage treatment plants. In certain circumstances it may also be more environmentally friendly. The downside is that potassium chloride is more costly than its counterpart.

    Examples Of Equipment Summary Tables

    In the following table, an equipment summary is provided for a toluene hydrodealkylation process flow diagram. Note that the equipment summary table is divided up into the respective type of equipment and the essential data that goes with each piece of equipment. For example, for the heat exchangers, duties, materials of constructions and area are types information that are essential because it can help with the economic evaluation. For vessels, reactors and towers, it is essential to include the size, materials of constructions, and temperature/pressures. For pumps, flow through it can help determine values for the economic evaluation.

    Table 6: Example of an Equipment Information Table for Toluene Hydroealkylation Process Flow Diagram

    Heat Exchangers

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    Advantages And Disadvantages Of Water Softening

    As the water treatment industry has grown in the U.S., the concept of water softening has often been misconstrued as a purifying, cleansing or conditioning process. This is due largely to exaggerated advertising and, in part, to consumer misconceptions about water treatment. But the reality is that water softening simply removes hardness minerals and eliminates problems that are a nuisance and not a threat to human health. The decision “to soften or not to soften” is a matter of personal preference not necessity. However, water softening does have advantages, and disadvantages, that make this decision a significant one.

    Process Flow Chart Of Water Treatment Plant :

    Zeolite Process ( Water Softening method) a complete note history, diagram, advantage, disadvantage

    The flow chart for water treatment plant is given below. They are-

    Hard Water Store Tank

    Delivery Pump

    Water Softening:

    There is an ion exchange method by which hardness of water is removed. After removing the hardness, water becomes soft and following parameters are maintained for considering a soft water. Here, I have present the standard for soft water.

    Standard Water Quality for Dye House:

    The following are the standard water quality for dye house. They are-


  • Subject: Water Purification Set

    Dear sir/Madam,We have an urgent inquiry for above item. If you able to supply us than reply by return mail. So that I will send to you the specification.

    Thanks & Regards,

  • Choice of water treatment technology is important to get end product suiting your specific industry demandsWe as water consultants advise on such issues after understanding the process involved in your industry Our organization works both as a WATER CONSULTANT and PLANT MANUFACTURERSas per company requirements .

  • We are looking for WTP without Resin and Back wash Sand filteration.If you have some other process of making soft water from Hard water pls let me know. Present Capacity: 340 M3/Hr.Thanks

  • May 7, 2017 at 1:35 pm

    We use sodium cloride for iron removal and sodium thoi sulphate for remove clorine.We have sand filter,train filter and carbon filter.4 times back awash in a day.But hardness will high. .so dyed fabric uneven.How can we reduce hardness in wtp

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    Air Filter Of Bottle Blowing Machine


    The function of the air filter is to separate the liquid water and liquid oil droplets in the compressed air, and filter out the dust and solid impurities in the air. Still, it cannot remove the gaseous water and oil.


    The air generally contains harmful substances such as dust, rust, and moisture.

    The compressed air in the first filter device will have a coalescence effect, condensing some particles and staying on the filter.

    These tiny particles will become larger water droplets after a long time of condensation.

    Compressed air will enter the separation chamber, and its flow rate will naturally slow down.

    The particles passing through the previous channel will gather again and condense on the water trap.

    The non-condensed water is water with impurities and will flow along the bottom of the device.

    As soon as it reaches the location of the drainage equipment, the electric drain gate will discharge the water.

    After filtering, you will get dust-free, oil-free, and water-free, relatively dry, clean compressed air.

    Clean air can effectively extend the service life of pneumatic equipment.

    Utility Streams In Process Topology

    Utilities are necessary for the plant to keep running. The purpose of the utilities is usually to add or remove heat to the equipment so that the temperature can be controlled. The type of utility for the duties should also be specified on a separate table following the process flow diagram. One way to find the type of utility that is supplied can be done in HYSYS where the process must first be modeled and then sent to the heat exchanger analyzer. The following bullet points are examples of the many different types of utilities that can service a plant:

    Fire Water

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